What is a report?

A report is a piece of informative writing that describes a set of actions and analyses any results in response to a specific brief. A quick definition might be: "This is what I did and this is what it means."

-          - Clear layout
-          - Organised into clearly differentiated sections with headings
-          - Clear introduction giving the basic facts
-          - Formal language –vocabulary and structures
-          - Appropriate linking words
-          - Clear, concise sentences
-          - Content is usually presented objectively although it may then lead to a more personal conclusion

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Kerala is situated on the tropical Malabar Coast and shaped by tea and spice covered hills, unhurried backwaters and beaches. It is known for its ecotourism and its unique tradition and culture coupled with its varied demography. Kerala was able to transform itself into one of the niche holidays destination in India due to extravagant temple festivals, sandy beaches, spectacular waterfalls, mountain ranges, wildlife sanctuaries, snake boat races and Ayurvedic Philosophies. The feel is the million times better that rejuvenates the mind, quenches the soul when exotic birds fly overhead and wild elephants roam and that’s why it is the highest brand recall.
     Here are major attractions that send you off in dreamy disposition and ease the mind. They don’t call it God’s own Country for nothing

Vembanad Backwater:
It is also known as Kochi Lake and is India’s longest lake of 900 kilometers of backwater. Vembanad is a unique ecosystem rich in streams, rivers, myriad, lagoons, and canals. Kerala features three distinct backwater regions Kottayam, Ernakulam and Alapuzha whereas Kottayam is the best known and most impressive. Hit the helm and hire a boat for a few days to traverse the transcendent backwaters, the echo of exotic music from a close by temple and watch a burnt orange sunset, you will experience as you are in paradise away from the hurry and flurry of life. You can find your accommodation on the edge of the lake Vembanad not to mention have your own cook and navigator, which will be a combination of tranquility and luxury aptly called Privacy.

Yoga and Wellness Retreats:
Kerala is the perfect place to get your mind and body in sync. Wellness retreats and spas in Kerala will help you to detox your body and emotions. Living a life with wellness avoid stress and negative energy. It is an incredibly chilled out area which manage your stress and helps you to maintain a balance in life while coping with your stress. Another way could be doing yoga and getting your warrior on with Kalari Yoga and feeling the heat with Ashtanga. It is a great way to achieve balance. There are many daily classes and lengthy courses offered by several well-known resorts. Doing different types of yoga in Kerala on the coast of the Arabian Sea is entirely a different mindset and can be easily done.

Periyar National Park:
Most of Kerala consists of wet evergreen rain-forests and national treasures like Periyar National Park. It is a giant exhibition within the Thekkady district. It is open throughout the year and one of India’s most prominent tourist destinations. Periyar-southern based national park is renowned for its bio-diverse tracts of wilderness and treasured animals. It is open even through sodden monsoon season and you can have jungle tours by the traditional boat observing the park’s rich wildlife and safaris. There are plenty of options available on Periyar’s magnificent lake like onsite knowledgeable guides and entertaining Eco-friendly activities.

Mattancherry Palace:
The palace has an important historical place in India. It was an offering from the Portuguese to the Raja of Kochin in the mid 16th century. It was refashioned by the Dutch and renamed Dutch Palace. There are important things to see in Mattancherry Palace like preserved murals of Hindu origins which illustrates colorful scenes from the Ramayana and Mahabharata. The palace is constructed in the state’s traditional architectural style called Nalukettu with a temple dedicated to the Kochi’s royal family and a central courtyard. Take a tour for an insightful side trip. There are two temples in the palace one dedicated to Krishna and the other to Lord Shiva.

Kovalam beach near Thiruvananthapuram is the most developed resort area in Kerala centered around three crescent-shaped beaches. Apart from this, Hawa beach is the main attraction filled with local fisherman and sunbathing sightseers heading in and out from the sea. Kovalam is a great place to have Ayurvedic massage, the Ancient Indian Traditional medication practised 1,000 years ago, yoga classes and have little waterfront fun. This is where locals come to have camel rides and to see the beautiful twilight. On the Northern end the restaurants and hotels are on Lighthouse beach. Vizhinjam Lighthouse brightens up the shore, which gives a fantastic view. Kovalam is the most relaxing and quietest place defined by several upscale resorts and restaurants leading to the water.

What to say about this place? Just search for the picture of Munnar and you will instantly understand the mesmerizing view, there is nothing more beautiful than this. Munnar is one of the finest hill stations of South India. Munnar is a town in the Western Ghats Mountains with rolling hills dotted with tea plantations and example of the importance of tea to the people’s livelihood and India’s economy. It is more than 5,000 feet above sea level. Misty hilltops, tea plantations, storybook towns, and meandering lanes are all here. Munnar is the junction of Nallathanni, Mudrapuzha and Kundala mountain streams. If you are looking for more adventure and incredible views,  climb Anamundi, southern India’s highest peak. It is a great spot for paragliding across the skies and trekking in lower areas. The best area attractions are Tea Museum, Mattupetty and Eravikulam National Park.

Wayanad is almost parallel to the coastline within the Western Ghats. The area is scenic and positively magnetic with a dense forest, lush green and lofty pinnacles and coconut palms. The wildlife sanctuaries of Tholpetty and Muthanga are great for spotting India’s finest specimens, Caves is ideal for climbing, Meenmutty Falls and Chembra Peak are perfect for adventure seekers, the ancient Jain Temples are perfect for pondering and excellent opportunities for navigators who want to explore the far-flung forests of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka where coffee, rice paddies, rubber and ginger plantations are just the start of an epic and unforgettable landscape. This is the unspoiled and wonderfully natural area within Kerala.

It seems you are infatuated by the spectacular and magnetic place. So what you are waiting for? Book your tickets now and experience something so peaceful! Contact us on http://www.palmlandtours.net/

Why is Kerala called “God’s own Country”?
What can tourists do in Vembanad?
Why is Periyard National Park a popular tourist destination?
Why is Munnar unique?
      Why is Kerala a popular niche holidays destination?


Complete the sentences below with information from the article you’ve just read.

1.   In the last years Kerala __________________________ itself into one of the niche holidays destination in India.
2.   If you want to get away from the hurry and flurry of life, Vembanad Backwater is a good option, since accommodation _____________________________ on the edge of the lake.
3.   Several well-known resorts ____________________________________________ and lengthy courses.
4.   Ayurvedic massage ___________________________________________ for more than 1,000 years.
5.   Tourists are _____________________________________ going to Periyar National Park because of its bio-diversity.

Listen to Correspondent Jean-Francois Belanger’s report on his trip to Chernobyl and complete the blanks:

Unusual Holiday Destination: Chernobyl
Following the accident in 1986, a 30 km exclusion zone was created and declared unfit for human habitation.
So if you are tired of fighting your way past bus-loads of tourists, one of the places you could think about is Chernobyl. Yes, the Chernobyl.
Worried that there is nothing to see in a place like this? Well you just may be in for a surprise…

     I took a tour of Chernobyl through a company called SoloEast. Before booking, I had read it was a good idea to check around as prices can vary -at least partly depending on the size of the group.  In the end, I shelled out more than _________________  to go to one of the most dangerous places on earth

Visitors are driven by bus to the ''forbidden zone'' to where only people with special permission are allowed. Most of the surface covered by the zone is relatively safe but there are also places like the red forest and the vehicle scrap yard where radiation levels are still very high. Be sure to follow the guide’s advice at all time and do not leave the roads.
There are several restrictions and many precautions set up on the tour. Those attending must be at least 18 years old, and you must bring your passport. You cannot wear shorts, open-toed shoes, or tank tops. Those who are not properly dressed are left behind. Taking photos and video is allowed almost everywhere, except of checkpoints, security devices (including any fences) and certain areas specified by the guide.
Altogether the tour takes about nine hours (including travel time), we were bussed to Chernobyl, about eighty miles away.  We reached the first checkpoint and piled out of the bus.   We got back in the bus and headed for Chernobyl InterInform, a state-run agency founded to encourage the study of the area and incident and which also helps coordinate tours. At InterInform we were introduced to our guide, Vladimir. Vladimir, one of 130,000 nuclear refugees after the accident at Chernobyl, now works for the agency.  We signed a form that explained the rules (no wandering off from the tour guide, no picking stuff up or taking anything out of the area, no taking pictures in areas the guide specifies as a no-photo zone, etc.) and then we set off for Reactor No. 4, where the explosion took place _________ ago.
We all stared at Reactor No. 4 while Vladimir told us that nobody knows what is going on inside. The ________________________  is now covered by a concrete sarcophagus to contain the radioactive materials from what’s left of the reactor core. A new sarcophagus is being constructed and will be placed over the existing one.
The levels of radiation on guided tours are relatively small. The main danger is not in the radiation itself, but in particles of radioactive materials that may remain on your clothes or items. Thus, risks are pretty much non-existent as long as you don't get yourself contaminated.    
We got back in the minivan and headed for the ghost______________________ of Pripyat, where more than 50,000 plant workers used to live. Now, nearly 30 years after the accident, the radiation level still makes the city uninhabitable. 
The Pripyat _________________________ was scheduled to open only four days after the Chernobyl accident, but this never happened. The ferris wheel, swings, bumper cars and the merry-go-round were never used and are now rusting away.                      
We were then brought to an empty elementary school. The floors were covered with glass, papers, pieces of wood, books, and notebooks, along with __________________ . There are also Soviet posters, and random items such as a shoe or a doll. You can still read the teachers’ Russian writing on the chalkboards: one lesson was practice dictating telephone numbers.
While a tour of a radioactive fallout-out zone is not likely to be something you would do twice or perhaps even want to do twice – it is something I’m glad I did once.

WRITING   ______ / 20
ü  TASK 1: Do some research: what kind of niche holidays are currently on the market?
TASK 2: Decide on one. Find out as much information as you can about that type in particular (e.g. accommodation, prices, activities)

Always use paragraph headings to plan your report. Before you begin writing, make sure that the headings are in the most logical order. As you write, make sure that everything that you include is in the most appropriate paragraph.

Imagine you work for a tourist office and the manager has asked you to design an alternative holiday. Write your report and describe
·        - accommodation,
·         - activities planned,
·         - what it has to offer to tourists, etc and
·         - comment on its good and bad points.

Bear in mind that you are NOT writing an advertisement and that tourists are NOT going to read this report, just your boss.



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The purpose of an ESSAY is for you to discuss a subject, express your opinion and give reasons for your opinion.
When writing your essay you should
-           cover the two points you are given in the notes as well as your own idea in the third point.
-           organise your answer in a logical way using paragraphs and linking sentences and paragraphs appropriately.
-           express your opinion clearly on the subject of the essay
-           give reasons and examples to support your ideas
-           use a style appropriate for the situation (this should be quite formal, as it is an essay for your teacher)
-           write grammatically correct sentences
-           use accurate spelling and punctuation



Mass Surveillance Technologies
For years, there’s been ample evidence that authoritarian governments around the world are relying on technology produced by American, Canadian, and European companies to facilitate human rights abuses.  From software that enables the filtering and blocking of online content to tools that help governments spy on their citizens, many such companies are actively serving autocratic governments as "repression’s little helper."
The reach of these technologies is astonishingly broad: governments can listen in on cell phone calls, use voice recognition to scan mobile networks, read emails and text messages, censor web pages, track a citizen’s every movement using GPS, and can even change email contents while en route to a recipient. Some tools are installed using the same type of malicious malware and spyware used by online criminals to steal credit card and banking information. They can secretly turn on webcams built into personal laptops and microphones in cell phones not being used. And all of this information is filtered and organized on such a massive scale that it can be used to spy on every person in an entire country.
This is a phenomenon that spans the globe and implicates dozens of corporations.  Over the past year, and partly in response to the uprisings that have swept the Arab world, concerns about these exports have been amplified in media reports and by digital rights organizations, sparking a debate as to the appropriate course of action.
For example, Narus, a Boeing subsidiary, was revealed to have sold to Egypt sophisticated equipment used for surveillance. California’s BlueCoat Systems, Inc was found to have equipment being used in Syria.

Germany-based Trovicor has sold technology to a dozen Middle Eastern and North African countries, including Bahrain, where dozens of activists were tortured before and after being shown transcripts of their text messages and phone conversations captured from this technology.

Cisco Systems is facing litigation in both Maryland and California based on its alleged sales of surveillance equipment to the Chinese to track, monitor and otherwise facilitate the arrest, detention, or disappearance of human rights activists and religious minorities who have been subjected to gross human rights violations.  EFF has issued a petition calling on Cisco to stop aiding China's human rights abuses.
The Electronic Frontier Foundation believes that it's time for Western governments to investigate companies that have allegedly assisted in human rights violations, and the technology companies selling mass surveillance equipment must step up and ensure that they aren’t assisting foreign governments in committing human rights violations against their own people.
EFF has proposed the EU and US governments adopt robust "Know Your Customer" standards. A blueprint of our proposed standards, including detailed definitions and implantation guidelines, is available online.
Answer these questions about the text
1       Is the author of this article is FOR or AGAINST mass surveillance?
2       In paragraph 3 the author mentions a debate, what is this debate about?
3      What does EFF want to achieve?
4      In your opinion, what are the advantages and disadvantages of mass surveillance?

USE OF ENGLISH  TASK  ___ / 10          
1     Authoritarian governments _________________________ relying on surveillance technology for a long time.
2   Citizens’ movements ________________________________________________________ using GPS.
3     It __________________________________________ that Trovicor has sold technology to a dozen Middle Eastern and North African countries.
    Cisco ______________________________________ to stop aiding China's human rights abuses.
5     “The EU and US governments ________________________________ robust ‘Know Your Customer’ standards,”  EFF has just proposed.


Watch a video about surveillance in China and complete the blanks with one or two words.

In order to avoid disruption on China’s National Day, the police have installed ________________________ everywhere in Beijing. This project is called “Skynet”.

China usually censors and monitors all of its web traffic and there are roughly 2 million internet police alone who can crack down any form of ________________________________.

China is also known to wiretap phones. The NY Times has reported that private phone calls are automatically disconnected if a ______________________________ like “protest” is mentioned. As a result, many people __________________________ their phones when they are having potentially dissenting conversations, even in person.

The Chinese government can use all this information to imprison those people who disagree with them. They can also rate the _________________________________, since Chinese citizens are given a “social credit score” based on private behaviour, which might prevent them from receiving a travel visa, a bank loan, or even a job. Needless to say, programs like these are intended to create a fear of dissent.

LEVEL 9 - ORAL TASK 1 - 2018

Tabloid and broadsheet newspapers

What’s the difference?

Look at the front pages of two different newspapers, The Sun and The Independent on Sunday.

Which is the tabloid newspaper, and which is the broadsheet? What are your immediate impressions of the different coverage? (Complete the chart provided)

Think of ...
-      the size of the headline
-      the content of the headline (Eton is an expensive private school)
-      the photograph
-      the layout of the front page
-      the use of the word exclusive
-      the length of the text on the front page

Read the two articles. Which newspaper ...
... is more factual and objective?
... is more informal ?
... has longer, more complex sentences ?
... uses more informal, idiomatic, conversational language ?
... uses more formal, controlled, concise language ?

Where did the reporters obtain their information ?
Who did they speak to ?
Which newspaper attributes its sources more ? Why?

Size and content of the headline

Number of pictures

Layout of the front page

Length of the text


Other comments

The gap between tabloids and broadsheets is a wide one. They look different, they contain different news, they have a different style of writing and they aim to attract different readers. However, the competition for readers is intense, and tabloids and broadsheets may steal tricks off each other in order to win the circulation war (eg) many broadsheet newspapers in Britain run 'Fantasy Football Leagues' which originated as a tabloid tactic. Some UK broadsheets have recently started producing a tabloid edition to further confuse matters.

Here are a few of the main differences:

TABLOIDS (down-market)
BROADSHEETS (up-market)
“Popular” press“Quality” or “serious” press
Aimed at lower social groupingsAimed at higher social groupings
Bold layout (e.g. colour on the masthead, very bold typeface, easy to read), with large, dramatic picturesPlainer layout (no colour on the frontpage, smaller typeface suggests readers will make more effort to read it) and subtle, possibly smaller, pictures
Shorter articles, more pictures, less “in-depth” reportingLonger articles, more detailed
Puns and jokes in headlinesSerious headlines
More focus on human interest stories, celebrity gossipMore focus on politics, international news
Use of gimmicks such as bingo games, free travel tickets, phone-in surveys


Middle-market newspapers:  A middle-market newspaper is one that attempts to cater to readers who want some entertainment from their newspaper as well as the coverage of important news events. Middle-market status is the halfway point of a three-level continuum of journalistic seriousness; upmarket newspapers generally cover hard news and down-market newspapers favour sensationalist stories. In the United Kingdom, since the demise of Today (1986–95), the only national middle-market papers are the Daily Mail and the Daily Express, distinguishable by their black-top masthead, as opposed to the tabloidsred-top mastheads. The best known American mid-market papers are USA Today, the Chicago Sun-Times, and the New York Daily News

The Front Page
Newspaper front pages fulfil several different functions. They must:
  • attract readers
  • reinforce the newspaper's identity through easily recognisable style features
  • demonstrate clearly what the newspaper's attitude is towards the news of the day
  • show that this particular edition of the newspaper contains certain stories - hopefully including better coverage of main stories than any other newspaper

Broadsheet newspapers tend to print across six columns. Although each has their own individual style, you will find the following elements on the front page of all newspapers; these are the conventions of a front page.